The 4M Super Monkey upgrade, the Sun Temple, sacrifices most 5th tier towers, along with sun worshippers, within a 6 tile radius, destroying them in exchange for additional attacks and various buffs.
The 5M upgrade doubles the fire rate and power of the previous sacrificial bonus(es), but doesn't sacrifice more towers. Probably due to a bug, the range bonus from any sacrifices is lost when upgrading to 5M.
The price you spent on the 5th tier tower doesn't matter, the only thing that matters is the amount. Sacrificing a Golden Barrage (5L Dartling) is the same as sacrificing an Ultra Hyper Beam (5M Dartling), even though the price gap is large.
All sacrifices (even Monkey Village / Banana Tree) increase range slightly.
Note that 5th tier stack upgrades do not get sacrificed.
Multiple sacrifices of the same type will increase the overall effectiveness of the sacrifice, so it is highly recommended to have a lot of sacrifices to reach extremely high rounds.
Only Tier 5 Sacrifices will effect the temple.
Vanilla (no sacrifice) - shoots huge plasma balls.
Dart Monkey - Shoots large darts.
Tack Shooter - Shoots about 16 large tacks like a tack sprayer.
Sniper Monkey - Huge darts that have the range of the whole map.
Boomerang Thrower - Shoots huge boomerangs.
Ninja Monkey - Shoots large shurikens.
Bomb Shooter - Shoots huge bombs.
Monkey Submarine - Shoots airburst darts.
Charge Tower - Shoots large charges.
Glue Gunner - Shoots Moab Poison glue in a helix pattern.
Ice Monkey - Shoots an Absolute Zero ring that freezes all non shielded/static bloons including MOAB-class.
Monkey Buccaneer - Shoots 5 large darts like a shotgun.
Monkey Engineer - Spawns huge sentries.
Monkey Ace - Shoots darts like the tack shooter sacrifice (but there are less darts than the Tack sacrifice).
Bloonchipper - Sucks in Bloons. Includes MOAB class.
Monkey Alchemist - Shoots large potions that spits poison clouds on hit.
Monkey Apprentice - Shoots tornadoes that also pushes back bloons.
Monkey Village - Nothing.
Banana Tree - Nothing.
Mortar Launcher - Big Explosions with white outlines at your cursor.
Dartling Gun - Shoots huge darts like a dartling gun toward your cursor.
Spike Factory - Spawns Spike Nebula
Heli Pilot - Shoots two golden spinning darts.
Plasma Monkey - A large plasma beam spits from the temple.
Super Monkey - Powers up the vanilla plasma shots. Note that the Super Monkey is only get sacrificed when it is 3M instead of any tier 5 upgrade